Principles in Xiangji Operation--Chinese Economic Ethnology
Author: Tingshuo Yang
Translated by Gary Situ
Reviewed by Rui Huang-fu, Hongfei Liu
Hardback - 644 pages
£98 €120 $158
This book is one of the most important works about earlier systematical theoretical analysis on economic anthropology theories in China. It is a milestone in growth process of Chinese economic anthropology. It focuses on cross-culture background, histories and spatial differences in different ethnic groups’ economic activities. In this book, the author uses the Chinese character of “xiang” to refer to the social and natural entity regulated by the system composed of non-economic restraints that impact economic activities across different ethnic regions. It attempt to reveal the essence of cross-xiang economic activities, factors that cause cross-xiang economic activities to succeed or fail, as well as the solutions to the problems encountered in cross-xiang economic activities. Whoever led the development faced the same question, i.e., the development activities were carried out in a quite different natural environment by applying the Han culture in different cultural settings. These facts have prompted special theoretical problems that are related to differences in both the natural environment and culture. Such problems cannot be solved exclusively by either economic or cultural anthropological measures, but rather by economic anthropology- an interdisciplinary subject between cultural anthropology and economics.
Preface Chapter One Introduction I The Issue: History and Current Status II The Book：Purposes and Tasks III Means toward the Ends IV Xiangji Operation: Fundamental Concepts Chapter Two Development (Kaifa) I Development: Original Meaning and Rheology II Traditional Modes of Development and Prior Reviews III Realities Chapter Three Culture (Section I) I Culture: Essence and Structure II Similarities and Differences in the Economic Life of Human Being: An Overview III Barriers in the Integration of Xiangji Products IV Between Different Phases and Different Modes: the Meaning in Economics Chapter Four Culture ( Section II ) I Disturbing Factors Triggered by the Local Customs II Reception and Application of Information III Societies, Property Rights and Production Organizations Chapter Five Culture (Section III) I Keys and Locks in Technological Promotions II Ethnic Minority Education and Economy: An Interactive Relationship III An Invisible Network IV The Problem We Can Not Get Around Chapter Six Background I Similarities and Differences in the Background of Xiangji Operations: An Overview II Natural Backgrounds: Nature and Restraining Mechanism III Analysis of the Compatibility between Heterogeneous Habitats IV Spacial Attenuation and Investment Expansion Chapter Seven Capacity I Components of the Economic Capacity II Calculation of Overall Operating Capacities III Restraints on Operating Capacities Chapter Eight Policy I Where the Planned Economy Succeed and Fail: An Overview II Consequences that a Failed Planned Economy Brings to Ethnic Minority Regions III Impacts that Current Cultural Environments Have on the Economic Development Chapter Nine Solutions I A Review on the Ways in Search of Solutions II The Co-existence of Wholeness and Disequilibrium III The Co-existence of Exchange at Equal Values and Self-driven Optimization Chapter Ten Case Studies I A Brief Introduction of the Surveyed Objects II Cognitive Patterns among Ethnic Miaos III From Ancient to Modern Times IV From Modern to Contemporary Times V The Life Style in Shanping Closing Notes Epilogue Bibliography
YANG Tingshuo (1942- ), Chinese ecological anthropologist, economical anthropologist and historian, one of the most important promoters of Chinese Ecological Anthropology Association, who has published more than 20 monographs, 100 papers, and has finished and taken over the leading role in three National Social Science Foundation of China projects, and three international funding projects. Mr. Yang’s famous representative works are An Introduction to Indigenous Ecological Knowledge, An Introduction to Ecological Anthropology, Nations & Culture & Niche, and Principles in Xiangji Operation--Chinese Economic Ethnology.