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Tibetan Buddhism in the Qing Dynasty

Tibetan Buddhism in the Qing Dynasty

Author: Kal Sang Gyal

Translated by Wang Guozhen

ISBN: 978-1-84464-668-5

Ebook ISBN: 978-1-84464-669-2

Hardback - 502 pages

July 2021


£95 €118 $152



Based on abundant Tibetan and Chinese materials, this book systematically discusses the development and evolution of Tibetan Buddhism in China during the Qing Dynasty, and makes a detailed exposition of the system of Buddhist rituals, the temporal and religious administration system, study on living Buddha reincarnation and the system of drawing a lot from the golden urn, the system of conferment and rewards, system of certificates of lamas and the management mode of lamas of Tibetan Buddhism in the Qing Dynasty. It restores the historical stage background of the activities of important figures of various sects. This book is not only a supplement to the previous studies, but also corrects some wrong judgments caused by the lack of historical data. Therefore, this book is of great significance to the study of Tibetan Buddhism and to the study of local history, political history and national history

The Chinese version of this book was published in 2014 and has had a great impact in the academic world. Many scholars hope to translate it into English for publication because it involves the Tibetan Buddhism in China during the Qing Dynasty. The English version will help international academia understand the research results of Chinese scholars on this subject.

Most of the previous studies on the history of Qing Dynasty and Tibetan Buddhism use Chinese materials. The author of this book is a Tibetan scholar who is proficient in Tibetan, Chinese and English. With his linguistic and literal advantages, he references and quotes a large number of first-hand Tibetan materials, which is more extensive and informative.

There are many Tibetan Buddhism factions. In the past, the study of Tibetan Buddhism in the Qing Dynasty was mainly focused on special topics. This title was the first book to study it comprehensively and systematically. This book systematically combs the various factions of Tibetan Buddhism, expounds the establishment, inheritance, religious ceremony and theoretical characteristics of each faction, so the study of this book is more in-depth and more detailed.

The author has been writing this book, and has been in the Tibetan area several times in recent years, entering every temple, accumulating a large number of first-hand data and conducting systematic investigation. But the scholars in the past are more difficult to do this.

This book has its own unique features in the depth, breadth, framework structure and data use of the study, which surpasses the predecessors, fills in the research gap, is a real innovation result and has important academic value.




Overview of Relevant Literatures

(1) A Study of Tibetan Buddhism Policy in the Qing Dynasty

(2) Study on Living Buddha Reincarnation and the System of Drawing a Lot from the Golden Urn

(3) Living Buddha Lineage in the Qing Dynasty

(4) The Rise of the Gelug Sect in the Hinterland and Mongolian Region

(5) Concluding Remarks

Volume I

Chapter I The Gelug Sect

Section 1 The Founding of the Gelug Sect

Section 2 The System of the Kadam Monastery

(1)Inheritance of the Kadam Tripa

(2)Inheritance of the Rongwu Monastery

Section 3 The System of the Drepung Monastery

(1)Inheritance of the Tar Monastery

(2)Inheritance of the Gonlung Monastery

(3)Inheritance of the Chuzang Monastery

(4) Inheritance of the Serkog Monastery

(5)Inheritance of the Labrang Monastery

(6)Inheritance of the Lamo Deqen Monastery

Section 4 The System of the Sera Monastery

(1)Inheritance of the Garze Monastery

(2)Inheritance of the Chone Monastery

Section 5 The Tantric College in Lhasa

(1)Inheritance of the Tantric Teachings of Segyu

(2)Inheritance of the Lower Tantric College

(3)Inheritance of the Upper Tantric College

(4)Inheritance of the Qamdo Qambaling Monastery

(5)Inheritance of the Sumtseling Monastery

(6)Inheritance of the Jakhyung Monastery

Section 6 Ensa Oral Lineage

(1) Oral Lineage in the Period of the Kadam Monastery

(2)The Ensa Oral Lineage in the Period of Retreats

(3)Inheritance of the Tashilhungpo Monastery

Chapter II Other Sects

Section 1 Nyingma Sect

(1)The Distant Exotic Kama Lineage

(2)The Close Terma Lineage

Section 2 Kagyu Sect

(1)Karma Kagyu Sect

(2)Taglung Kagyu Sect

(3)Drigung Kagyu Sect

Section 3 Sagya Sect

Section 4 Jonang Sect

Chapter III Classical Documents

Section 1 Tibetan ‘Tripitaka’

(1) ‘Kangyur’ and ‘Tengyur’

(2) Tibetan Version of the ‘Tripitaka’

Section 2 Mongolian and Manchu Versions of the ‘Tripitaka’

(1) Mongolian Version of ‘Tripitaka’

(2) Manchu Version of ‘Tripitaka’

(3) Other Scripture Literatures

Section 3 Other Scriptures

(1)Other Scriptures of the Gelug Sect

(2)Other Scriptures of the Nyingma Sect

(3)Other Scriptures of the Kagyu Sect

(4) Other Scriptures of the Sakya Sect

(5)Tibetan Scripture Woodblocks of the Derge Printing House

Section 4 Historical Books and Biographies of Lamas

(1) Historical Books

(2)Autobiographies of Eminent Monks

Section 5 Works of Various Sects

(1)Gelug Senior Monks and Their Masterpieces

(2)Senior Monks of the Nyingma Sect and Their Works

(3)Senior Monks of the Kargyu Sect and Their Works

(4)Senior Monks of the Sagya Sect and Their Works

Chapter IV Dogma and Doctrine

Section 1 Core Dogma of Various Sects

(1)Core Dogma of the Gelug Sect

(2)Core Dogma of the Nyingma Sect

(3)Core Dogma of the Kagyu Sect

(4) Core Dogma of the Sagya Sect

(5) Core Dogma of the Jonang Sect

Section 2 Studies of Buddhist Sects and their Inheritance System

Section 3 Tantras

(1)Conceptual Explanation of Tantras

(2)Definition of New and Old Tantras

(3) Differentiation and Analysis of Tantra Hierarch

(4) Four Classes or Six Classes of Tantra

Section 4 Logic

Chapter V The System of Buddhist Rituals

Section 1 Monastic Discipline

(1)Monk Positions

(2)Buddhist Commandments

Section 2 Khenpo System

Section 3 Monastery Education

(1)Teaching Materials

(2) Teaching

(3) Academic Titles

Section 4 Prayer Festival

(1)Monastery Dharma Events

(2)Grand Prayer Festival in Lhas

Section 5 Religious Festivals

(1)Tibetan New Year

(2)Butter Lamp Festival

(3)Saga Dawa Festival

(4)Shoton Festival

Volume II

Chapter VI The Temporal and Religious Administration System

Section 1 Kublai Khan and Imperial Mentor of the Yuan Dynasty

Section 2 Byangchu Gyaltsen and the Phagdru Regime

Section 3 Gelug Sect and Mongol Khan

Section 4 The Galoon Government Official and Local Political and Religious Administration

Section 5 Tibetan Governor and the Political Situation in Tibet

Section 6 Qing High Commissioner in Tibet and the Kashag Government

(1) High Commissioners Stationed in Tibet

(2) Kashag Government

Section 7 Regent and the Dalai Lama

Chapter VII The Living Buddha Reincarnation System

Section 1 Black Hat Lineage of Karma Kagyu Sect

Section 2 Dalai Lama Lineage

Section 3 Panchen Erdeni Lineage

Section 4 Jebtsun Penpa Hutuktu Lineage

Section 5 National Preceptor Changkya Lineage

Section 6 Four Major Ling’s in Lhasa and Their Living Buddha Lineages

(1) Tengye Ling

(2) Tsomon Ling

(3) Kunde Ling

(4) Drib Tsemchok Ling

Section 7 The Lineages of Eight Major Hutuktus in Beijing

Section 8 Hutuktus on File in the Qing Dynasty

Chapter VIII The System of Drawing Lots from a Golden Urn

Section 1 Establishment of the System of Drawing Lots from a Golden Urn

Section 2 Lot Drawing Ceremony for Four Major Living Buddhas in the Qing Dynasty

(1) Reincarnated Soul Boy of the Dalai Lama

(2) Reincarnated Soul Boy of the Panchen Erdeni

(3) Reincarnated Soul Boy of Jebtsun Penpa

(4) Reincarnated Soul Boy of Living Buddha Changkya

Section 3 Lot Drawing Ceremony for the Reincarnated Soul Boy of Other Great Living Buddhas

Chapter IX The System of Conferment and Rewards

Section 1 Titles of the Dalai Lama

Section 2 Titles of the Panchen Erdeni

Section 4 Titles of National Preceptor Changkya

Section 5 Titles of Other Living Buddhas

Chapter X Management over Monasteries

Section 1 Building and Repair of Monasteries

(1) Tibetan Buddhist Monasteries in Beijing

(2) No. 1 Royal Monastery - Yonghegong Lamasery

(3) Monasteries of the Esoteric Sect

(4) Monasteries of Tibetan Buddhism in Rehe

(5) Monasteries of Tibetan Buddhism at Mount Wutai

(6) Monasteries in Dolon Nor

(7) Monasteries in Guihua

(8) Qingning Monastery in Mobei Kulun

(9) Puhua Temple in Ili of Xinjiang

(10) Shisheng and Other Temples in Liaoning

(11) Guangren Temple in Xi’an

(12) Guangfa Temple in Jinchuan

Section 2 Limits on the Size of Monasteries

Chapter XI Organization of Lamas

Section 1 Priesthood and Title

(1)Dugang and Senggang

(2)Lamas in Beijing

(3)Lamas in Tibet and Western Region and Nomadic Lamas

Section 2 System of Certificates of Lamas

(1)Management of Certificated Lamas

(2)Treatment for Certificated Lamas

Section 3 Prohibitions on Lamas

Section 4 Management over Lamas in U-Tsang

Section 5 Limitation on Mongolians’ Making Tea for Tibetan Lamas in Tibet


Tibetan Bibliographies

Chinese Bibliographies




KalSang Gyal is currently a professor at the Institute of World Religions, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, deputy director of the Center for Buddhist Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and professor and doctoral supervisor at the University of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. He is the author of The General History of Tibetan Buddhism in China, A Brief History of the Tibetan System of Government and Religion, Tibetan Buddhism: A Study of the Prehistory of the Nyingma School and Tantric Transmission, Studies on Tibetan Buddhism in the Qing Dynasty, The Ecology of Religion and Culture in Tibetan Area, Cultural Time and Space and Life of Faith, Religion in the Snow Region, Tantric Buddhism: The Mystical Culture of Tibetan Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Tibetan Religions, and other monographs. His main research interests include the history, sects, doctrinal thought, and religious culture of Tibetan Buddhism.

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